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 Chronological summary of historical events in the development of Kuban Cossack military establishment

A PREAMBLE: 

1. To the English reader,- there are at times no compatible words in the English vocabulary adequately describing Russian words, titles or designations,- for an instance: a word "voisko" can only be explained as an "military establishment".

2. The names or designations of Cossack military establishments ('voiska'- plural) stem from geographical locations of their settlements,- primarily along rivers like HOPER, DON, KUBAN etc, or other prominent natural features like Caucasus, Trans-Caucasus etc... For other specifics refer to the foot notes.

 

1696 Participation of Hoper Cossacks in AZOV (1) campaign.

1711, May 14 The destruction of Hoper settlements by order of the Peter the Great for participation of Hoper Cossacks in the Bulavin (2) uprising. 

1720, May 20 The return of the lands to the Hoper Cossacks confiscated from them by Peter the Great in 1711 

1731 Ratification of the establishment of Hoper Cossack command.

1767 First Hoper Cossack regiment established.

1768 Beginning of the bestowment of the "Hereditary Nobleman" title in Cossack military establishments.

1768-74 Participation of "Zaporozhets"(3) in the  Russo-Turkish Wars. 

1774 Count Potemkin-"Tavrichesky"(4) designated Governor of the NOVOROSIYSK Region  and Commander  of Cossack military establishments. 

1775,June4 Total destruction of "ZAPOROZSHYE" (3).

1777 Establishment of the "CAUCASUS LINE" (5).

1778 "THE KUBAN LINE" (6) fortified by Russian Field-Marshal Suvorov. 

1778-79 The Hoper Cossack regiment resettled into the STAVROPOL Region. 

1783,April 8 The Crimean and Taman peninsulas and the right bank of the KUBAN River incorporated into Russia.

1783 River Kuban becomes the Southern Border of Russia.

1783 Count Potemkin organizes the "Zaporozhets" under the leadership of 'Seedor Bely'(7)

1787 Count Potemkin forms volunteer formations 1787       Military Establishment of the "Faithful Cossacks" organized and a fortifications built at the VASILKOV settlement. 

1787 Seedor Beely elected an 'Ataman' [see (2)]. 

1787-91 Participation of the BLACK-SEA Cossacks (then 'Faithful Cossacks' as yet) in the Russo-Turkish War. 

1788,Junl7 The Ataman Seedor Beely passed away. 

1788 Election of new Ataman,- Zachar Chepiga. 

1788 Change in designation of the 'Faithful Cossacks' to the "Military Establishment of the Faithful Black Sea Cossacks".

1788 Foundation of the "EKATERINOSLAVL Cossack Military Establishment".

1789 Count Potemkin designated the Head Hetman (2) of the Ekaterinoslavl and the Black Sea Cossack military establishments.

 1790 Settlement of the Black Sea Cossacks between the BUG and DNIESTER rivers and foundation of the redoubt/fort at vil. SLOBODSEA.

1791, Oct.5 The death of the Count and Cossack 'Ataman' Potemkin.

1792, Jan.20 The lands of the Black Sea Cossacks between rivers Bug and Dniester were summarily taken away from them and incorporated into Ekaterinoslavl Province.

1792, Jan 29 Black Sea Cossacks dispatch their barrister Anton Golovaty as a head of delegation to St. Petersburg to plead for an allocation of lands along the KUBAN River.

1792, Jun.30 Empress Catherine the Great bequeaths to the Black Sea Cossacks the lands of TAMAN Peninsula and the adjacent areas.

1792 Supplemental Charter from Empress Catherine the 2nd about the Cossack holdings.

1792, Aug.2 The directive from Catherine the 2nd to relocate the Black-Sea Cossack flotilla to the Taman region.

1792, Aug. 15 Return of Hetman Golovaty and his deputation from St. Petersburg to the SLOBODSEA settlement

1792, Aug.25 Arrival into the Taman region of the first group of Black-Sea Cossacks - 3847 men under the leadership of colonel Sava Beely.

1792, Sept.2 The departure of the Head Ataman Chepiga from the Slobodsea Settlement with all mounted and foot Cossack forces, with all their regalia and the Church of the establishment.

1792, Oct.23 Ataman Chepiga arrived with all his Black-Sea Cossacks to the banks of the Kuban river and wintered on the river YEYA sandbanks in the KHAN fortress.

1792-1864 An uninterrupted 72-year long period of hostilities with the mountain tribes of Caucasus and the initially Black-Sea and subsequently KUBAN Cossack Establishments, culminating with the conquest of the Western Caucasus.

1793, Julyl5 Mass departure of the Cossacks with their dependants from their Dniester settlements under the leadership of the Establishment's Judge Anton Golovaty.

1793, Aug.15 Arrival of Golovaty into the Kuban region.

1793 Founding the City of Ekaterinodar (8).

1794, January The regional Black-Sea Administration publishes the "Orders of Cannon truths"(9).

1794 Resettlement of DON and VOLGA Cossacks numbering 1125 families out of which a Kuban regiments is organized.

1794 Two Black-Sea Cossack regiments were relocated to Poland, under the command of Ataman Chepiga.

1796-97 Black-Sea Cossacks participate in Persian (10) campaign.

1797, Jan.14 Ataman Chepiga passed away.

1797 Anton Golovaty elected Head Ataman.

1797 The Emperor Paul 1st designates Kotlarevski as the Ataman of the military establishment, thereby annulling the right of the Black-Sea Cossacks to elect their own Ataman.

1797 Persian uprising.

1798, Dec.22 Imperial edict of Paul the 1st forbids Black-Sea Cossacks to cross over Kuban River in pursuit of mountain tribesmen attempting to invade Black Sea coastal regions.

1799 Ataman Kotlarevski dismissed from his post and Lt.Colonel Bursak is designated a new Ataman.

 1801, Feb.16 Emperor Paul 1st issued a deed confirming Black-Sea Cossack’s rights of possession of their lands. 

1801 Black Sea establishment inaugurates a Chancery instead of Administration.

1802, Mar.20 The Black Sea Administration reestablished again. 

1802, Nov.13 Publication of the first "Statute" of the Black Sea Military Establishment [10 mounted (cavalry) and 10 foot (infantry) regiments].

1802 Ekaterinoslavl Cossacks, numbering 3277 men, with their dependants were resettled to Kuban Region and a Caucasus Regiment is formed. 

1803, May 13 Emperor Alexander the 2nd reaffirmed Black Sea Cossack rights to their lands. 

1803 The Black Sea Cossack Military Establishment opens the first academy for education of Cossack children 

1808 Two horse-drawn artillery companies were formed from the Cossack regiments located on the Caucasus Line (6).

1808 500 "BUDSHAK" Cossacks (10) incorporated into the Black Sea Establishment. 

1809-1811 First relocation from POLTAVA and CHERNIGOV provinces into the Black Sea region of 41,534 persons (of both genders). 

1811 An establishment of the Black Sea Guard (11) company.

1816 Ataman Bursak has retired and Lt.-Col. Matveyev designated a new Ataman.

1817 Horse-drawn Black Sea artillery company is formed.

1818, Nov.19 Military Council establishes general basis for the formation of  regiments  using  same homesteads  and  settlements from which original units were formed.

1820 The Black-Sea Cossack Military Establishment is taken out from the jurisdiction of TAVRIA Governor and subordinated to the Commander of the separate Caucasus Corps. 

1825 Second relocation from Poltava and Chernigov provinces into the Black Sea region of 48,392 persons (both genders). 

1825-27 The resettlement of Hoper Cossacks to the Kuban region. 

1827, Jan.9 Ataman Matveyev passes away. 

1827 Ataman Bezkrovni designated to the post. 

1827, Apr.26 The governing "Statute" of the Black Sea Cossack military establishment is published. 

1827 The Black Sea Establishment changes the designation of the "Establishment Ataman" to the "Designated Ataman".

1827-28 Black Sea Cossacks participate in the Russo-Turkish war. 

1828 All Cossack Establishments introduce and adapt rank designations (endemic specifically to Cossack forces only), valid to this day.

1828 Final occupation of Turkish fortifications at ANAPA.

1828 AZOV Cossack Military Establishment is founded.

1830 Ataman Bezkrovni passed command to General Zavadovski. 

1832 Separate Caucasus Line Military Establishment is founded. 

1832 A "Bodyguard" Squadron (12) formed within the Caucasus Line Establishment. 

1837 The Azov Mil. Establishment formed separate detachments which are dispatched to serve along the Black Sea coast line. 

1842, Jul.l Statute of Black Sea Mil. Establishment is published. 

1842 Out of the DON Cossack 'Bodyguard' Regiment a Black Sea "Bodyguard Squadron"(12) was formed as a separate unit.

1842 Beginning of populating of the "LABA River Line".

1842 The Chief of Staff of the Black Sea Cossack mil. establishment,  General Rashpil assumed duties of the 'Designated Ataman' due to the fact that Gen. Zavadovski was performing commander's duties of both Caucasus and the Black Sea Lines.

1845, Feb.16 A Statute of "Caucasus Line Mil. Establishment" is published.

1848 Town of YEYSK is founded. 

1848-49 Third resettlement from Poltava, Chernigov and HARKOV provinces of 14,227 persons into the Black Sea region takes place. 

1852 General Rashpil died and the duties of the Ataman were

passed on to General Kuharenko. 

1852 General Zavadovski died. 

1855 Death of the last of the Black Sea Cossack Atamans and designation of Gen. Philipson as a 'Designated Ataman'. 

1858 Establishment of the "Management of Cossack and Irregular Formations".

1858 Formation of the URUP Brigade. 

1860 Land, occupied by the Black Sea and partially Caucasus Military Establishments11, renamed; "KUBAN REGION".

1860 Organization of the "Kuban Military Establishment".

1861 Unsuccessful attempt of Russian Government to forcibly resettle Kuban Cossacks along the south bank of Kuban river.

1862, May 10 The "Proposition for population of the northern mountain approaches to the Caucasus Ridge" has been approved. The administrative borders of Kuban region were defined with the inclusion of Black Sea coast line from the estuary of river MOKUPSE to the estuary of Kuban river.

1863 Conquest of Trans-Kuban area completed.

1864 Conquest of Western Caucasus area completed.

1862-66 Populating the Trans-Kuban area.

1864 Elimination of the AZOV Mil. Establishment due to the fact that the majority of population migrated already into Kuban

region. 

1866 Costal area of Black Sea in the Kuban region excluded into separate district. 

1869 Exclusion of the Black Sea Costal District from the Kuban region and adding 12 settlements  (Stanitsa's)  to the STAVROPOL Province.

1869, Apr.21 Publication of the "Land Administration of the Settlements".

1870, Aug.1 Publication of "Military Service Obligation and Maintenance of Combat units of Kuban and TEREK Mil. Establishments". 

1870, Aug.30 Officers and Civil Servants were apportioned land parcels out of settlements land-block areas.

1877-78 Participation of Kuban Cossack units in Russo-Turkish wars. 

1879 Participation of Kuban formations in the conquest of Trans-Caspian area.

1883 Formation of seven (7) groups of local home-guard units. 

1893 Establishment of military-trade schools. 

1901 Introduction of domestic horse breeding. 1904-1905 Participation of Kuban Cossack units in Russo-Japanese War.

1905-1906 Participation of Kuban formations in reestablishing law and order in the Country and Trans-Caucasus regions.

1906 Council ("RADA") assembly in the city of Ekaterinodar for the purpose of resolving agrarian questions.

1907, Feb.15 Regulation for the distribution of arable lands approved, based on conclusions reached at the Council meeting of 1906.

1908, Jan.12 In accordance with decisions of the Military Council, the settlements received profits from the Establishment's lands slated for additional distributions.

1914-1917 Participation of Kuban units in World War One.

1917 Upon revolution in Russia11 first assembly of the Establishment Council ("RADA").

1917 Colonel Philimonov elected first 'Campaign Ataman'.

1917, Nov.24 General Cherny appointed Commander of units of Kuban region, campaign staff assembled and organization of battle plans against Bolsheviks initiated. 

1917-1920 Battles with Bolsheviks within Kuban region and outside Kuban borders. 

1918, Feb.28 Abandonment of the City of Ekaterinodar and departure to the "First (ICE) Kuban campaign" of military formations, Ataman, Regional Administration and Council.

1818, Aug.2 Liberation of the City of Ekaterinodar and its occupation by the "First Kuban,-General Kornilov" Regiment.

1920, Mar.6 Abandoning the City of Ekaterinodar and its occupation by Bolsheviks.

1920 Evacuation of White Armies of Southern Russia to Crimea. 

1920, Apr.19 Surrender of some Cossack units on Black Sea coast. 

1920, Jun-Oct Organization and fighting with reds in Kuban region, conducted by Gen. Phostikov, Col. Krishanovski and others. 

1920, Aug Landing of Cossack units under the command of Gen. Ulagay on Taman Peninsula. 

1920, Nov.1 Evacuation of White Russian Army and Cossack units with it from Crimea.

1920, Nov.12 Concentration of Kuban Cossack Corps (14,000 men) on the Greek Island of LEMNOS..

1921, Jan. 1-14 An agreement is reached among the Atamans of DON, KUBAN and TEREK Cossacks and a unified "Council of Don, Kuban and Terek" is created.

1921, Jun.1, Kuban Division arrived from Isl. of Lemnos to SERBIA. 

 

***************************

 

FOOTNOTES:

(1) Turkish fortress on the coast of Azov Sea.

(2) HETMAN (Headman) or ATAMAN of Hoper Cossacks.

(3) Cossack dwellers on the islands among cataracts and rapids of upper DNIEPR River.

(4) Title-suffix bestowed upon Count Potemkin for annexing "TAVRIA" region (Southern Russia) into Russian fold.

(5) Line of Cossack settlements along the northern edges of Caucasus mountain range.

(6) Synonymous with the 'Caucasus Line'.

(7) Personal name,- in English transmutation; "Isidor White".

(8) Renamed by Soviets "Krasnodar"-'gift-of-reds'- after take over in 1920's.

(9) A form of democratic self-governing rules.

(10) BUDSHAKS - People of Kalmyk origins inhabiting south-eastern Russian and Cossack regions for centuries.

(11) Special "Elite" units used as Ataman's and Imperial Body Guards.

(12) This cavalry unit size has no comparatives in modern definitions it is larger than a cavalry squadron of old but smaller than the cavalry regiment,- perhaps a half of old cavalry regiment,- about twelve hundred sabers.

 

 

Translated by N.M.G.

 

 

Source: “Kubanets – Donskoi Atamansky Vestnik”

#5, October 2001

 

spm111@yandex.ru

 

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